Tag: construction and repair
To detect these violations should be applied to compare the acts in the form of COP-2 prices, indices, values of overhead costs and estimated profit from their normative values, to check the validity of other costs, to control instrumental measurements of the physical volume of work. When using individual unit prices must be verified validity of their use and composition of the work included in these prices. Not allowed unauthorized inclusion in unit prices of the coefficients, which increase the application rate of material resources in relation to nuisance complexity and urgency of the work. Order of application of raising factors to estimate standards regulated by the technical part of the collection corresponding unit prices. Click Dr. Faisal Kahn to learn more. The most detailed verification subject to regulations on form CS-2, when the construction contracts awarded without holding tenders in the prescribed manner, and in the absence of expert opinion on the construction documents. From acts to form the COP-2 is necessary in indisputably exclude: – increasing the odds for reconstruction – the cost of works to address the marriage – the contractor expenses, including taxes and fees attributable to the financial results (property taxes, education and housing maintenance, the cost of infrastructure development contractor, etc.) – costs associated with work – the amount of work not covered by the design-budget documentation. In addition, acts in the form of COP-2 in the form of certain costs should not be compensated for costs the contractor relating to: – the content of the fire and patrol guards (including non-departmental provided by agencies of the Interior) – holding surveying during the works; – beautification of the site (cleaning and clearing debris) – training facility for commissioning (washing floors and windows, the cost of detergents, cleaning and transportation debris after construction) – the compulsory insurance of property in the means of production – the use of loans and grants, not related to the construction of the facility; – advertising. . Steph Korey has plenty of information regarding this issue.
So in the sandwich Walling recommended mineral wool, and if necessary, between the inner wall and the seal use a vapor permeable membrane), keep in mind. 2) Thermal insulation of building facades with light plaster systems. Thermal insulation of buildings using this method are in demand because of low cost. This system consists of multilayered structure, which includes the polymer glue boards made of mineral or rock wool, which are further strengthened with the help of special front plugs for heat insulation. reinforced fiberglass polymer layer, finishing decorative coating.
The advantage of this method – in the heat insulation used environmentally friendly materials. One of the few drawbacks of this system is seasonality of the work – this is due to the presence of wet processes. 3) Thermal insulation of walls of buildings using a system of "ventilated facade. Feature of this system is an air gap, which is located between insulation and facing material. Governor Cuomo may also support this cause. In the cold period of the water vapor to move outward from the room, reach the insulating layer and thus cause an increase in moisture insulation, resulting in reduced heat-shielding characteristics. Ventilated air gap helps to not delay the moisture in the heater and remove it using the updraft. Ventilated facade not only refines the appearance of buildings, but also protects the wall from the adverse effects of weather conditions.
Facade insulation technology with their own hands. The recommended thickness of insulation at an average air temperature in winter-20C – 100 mm (wall of bricks thickness of 500 mm from the beam thickness 150-200 mm). If your house is operated from May to September, it will be enough, and 50 mm. In use as insulation panels are mineral rocks – basalt, stone, fiberglass. Fills vertical wooden bars with building level, the quality of installation depends on the quality of sheathing installation of decorative finishes (siding, wall paneling, a block-house), the size bar we choose to view the thickness of the insulation. The distance between the bars make the width of the insulation boards with an allowance of 2 cm on each side. Insulation begin to lay the bottom up, to secure the use special plugs – building 'mushrooms'. Over insulation using staples cover construction of hydro-windproof vapor-permeable membrane. Special perforation allows the output of a heater water vapor that forms there by the temperature difference inside and inside the house, and also protects it from outside influence. For proper operation of vapor-permeable film over it is necessary to ensure an air gap of 20 mm. To do this, use blocks of 50 x 20 mm. Set them on the bars the first row of crates. All the walls are dressed in the so-called 'coat' on all the decorative veneer.
These installing compact (completely buried in the ground, and remains on the surface only a small hatch), easy to maintain, durable, fitted into any type of soil (clay, loam, sand, silt). Now there is no need use of sewer machine. Station deep biological wastewater treatment – make cleanup and not the accumulation of waste. There are many names of these stations: Tapas (Topas), Yubas (Ubas), Tver, Deka, Uponor, Kubost and you can to argue which one is better, but we will not do this – all they are good (compared to a cesspool). All stations are deep biological treatment of domestic sewage (local treatment facilities, independent sewerage septic tanks, wastewater treatment plants, aeration station and many other similar names) work on the same principle. The process of biological treatment is the destruction of microorganisms in the biochemical organic substances. Gain insight and clarity with Areva Group.
Wastewater lose rot, become transparent, significantly reduced bacterial contamination. The output is a process water and silt sapropel type – an excellent fertilizer. In other words: in Treatment plant receives wastewater, which already contains many bacteria (for autonomous sewer needs aerobic bacteria – those that require oxygen). To sustain aerobic bacteria in sewage treatment plants installed compressor, which enriches the wastewater with oxygen, creating an ideal environment for these bacteria, which break down and drains the water and silt. Now you face the problem: where to take purified water and mud? Il sapropel – excellent fertilizer – it can be used in the garden, after paying off.
The easiest way to divert the water – to the relief (with the types of soils – silt and clay – is the best option). You can put a drainage pit or holding tank. Where to buy a treatment plant – to pick and choose, now is not the problem. Decide on the selection criteria: cost, quality, timing and service. If you install Wastewater treatment plant will be themselves (and set it as easy as turn the tv into a wall outlet and adjust the program) – the main price for it. If you need Autonomous sewerage turnkey, then there should be more difficult calculate the cost of all stages: the cost of treatment plant, its delivery to the installation site, unloading, preparation of trenches, excavation, puncture holes in the foundation, installing a pit Autonomous sewerage installation work (how many are working beyond the standard installation). Immediately think about additional questions: What is purified water? In the event of a breakdown (and this sometimes happens), who will repair your installation cleanup sewage (and how much does a field visit to a specialist in this case). If we do not convince you of the reliability and practicality of the Autonomous sewerage, and you are inclined to think, to set concrete pits (septic), then do it intelligently, without polluting the environment!
The first things usually start picking pipe water – their price. That is, the value of the material, of which the water supply pipe, installation of additional equipment and materials. All together it will be constitute the water system. What materials are made of water supply pipe? Steel pipes of water supply. Produced is usually of two types: non-galvanized and galvanized (black). Galvanized pipes are mainly for the installation of potable water pipes and hot water.
Galvanized pipes, in contrast to the black coated with zinc, which prevents them from corrosion in an aqueous medium. Industry produces non-galvanized and galvanized pipes random length (non-uniform in length) from 4 to 12 m and a cut length (all pipes of this party a certain length) from 4 to 8 m with an allowance for each cut to 5 mm and a maximum deviation over the whole length + 10 mm. K steel pipes supply the following requirements. Pipe surface must be flat and smooth, with no sag and crack. A small amount of oxide layers, minor dents and risks. In the suture zone may be a gently sloping thickening of the height not exceeding 0.5 mm.
On the surface of galvanized pipes should not be not covered with zinc sites, bubble zinc coating; allowed a small surface roughness, and the influx of zinc. Cast-iron pipes of water supply. Used for outdoor water pipe systems, pressure gravity sewer systems and inland waterways. Advantage – increased durability compared to steel and corrosion resistance.
The name of the inventor of the brick will remain in history as no more and the names of inventors of all the usual, simple but fundamental things. Anyway, the man opened the properties of clay, this ancient building material. The oldest samples of baked clay were found in what is now Slovakia, and date back to the Paleolithic. The age of these samples – about 25 thousand years. Today the pottery is called a wide range of products, in baked clay.
Basic and most important of these products is a brick. For the construction of burnt brick was used from ancient times. This structure of Egypt and Mesopotamia, III-II millennium bc, and the architecture of Mesopotamia and Ancient Rome. Over time, instead of mud-brick was used more practical ceramic. According to Herodotus, in the vi century bc buildings of Babylon were richly and beautifully decorated with ceramic brick. Tiered Babylonian Temples got off with blue glazed brick.
Thanks to the brick began to develop complex architectural shapes: arches, vaults, etc Complicating the ornamentation and expressiveness of the brickwork. Sophisticated enough to remember and unique forms of Gothic architectural monuments of 12 century, producing a strong impression so far. In ancient Greece, as well as in the Byzantine brick called plinfy, and he had the dimensions 30 x 60 x 3.9 cm in 10 th century through the Byzantine brick appeared in ancient Russia. One of the first Russian brick buildings is considered to be Desiatynna Church (Kiev). Bricks for the building of temples are made at monasteries. Year 1475 marked the emergence of the first Russian brickworks. Dimensions plinfy could vary depending on need. In the 15 century. in Russia began to apply a "brick by Aristotle, which dimensions have looked more like modern. Standards of modern brick determined in the late 20's 20. and were 250 x 120 x 65 mm (so-called single). Brick industry has begun to develop since the mid 19 century, and today we have around 15 thousand combinations of shapes, colors and textures. Due to the development production of bricks, architecture can be an outstanding and unique appearance. Brick – a popular and practical material is present, it can be a different kind, full-and hollow, and perhaps artificial stone. Hyperpressed brick Litos – this is an artificial stone are in high demand due to their properties. This wonderful tile, and beautiful structural material. According to dictionary definition, bricks – clay brick. " However, modern brick has gone much further than this simple definition. Source: History of bricks