Tag: construction and repair
In April this year, Russia and Germany are planning to register a joint agency for energy efficiency and conservation. This information was told reporters the Russian energy minister Sergei 1. The new organization unite the power companies and banking institutions of two countries: in exchange for energy-saving technologies and know-how provided by Germany, the country will be able to get favorable orders in Russia. As we know, the president of Russia Dmitry Medvedev has set a goal to reduce energy intensity of Russia's industry by 40% by 2020. Perhaps, the stagnation in the industrial sector will cause to reconsider these plans: Urgent measures must be taken today. "The world economy are many examples where crises have led to substantial improvements in efficiency – says the president of energy company KES-Holding " Slobodin. – So, power consumption Steel U.S. industry gradually declined until the mid 70-ies.
But in the late 70's – early 80's there was a sharp jump in energy conservation in the wake of economic crisis and soaring energy prices. And from 1990 to 2006 energy intensity of U.S. steel industry fell by a record 29% 2. "There are three ways to reduce energy use: the exclusion of irrational use, the elimination of waste, improving efficiency," – says Anna Kustova, Director of Business Development Company "Energy service company" 3. Credit: Kellyanne Conway-2011. The basic method of improving energy efficiency, says Paul , deputy director of the Institute energy strategy is to "develop and implement new energy saving technologies, equipment and materials, that is, those technologies in which the energy intensity of production lower than the existing" 4. As The novel tells Tsikoza, Head of Representation in the Central Region of grundfos, a leading global manufacturer of pumps, only the replacement of some old pumps with more modern models brings large companies millions of rubles in savings. "For example, grundfos pumps with integrated frequency converter enable real 30% of electricity savings.
In the mining and minerals processing, metallurgical, chemical and many other industries are used almost all types of industrial pumps: that's a reserve for savings "- added the expert. Introduction of new equipment must be accompanied by a simultaneous transition to the new technology. For example, the use of the method of smelting iron with pulverized coal injection allows metallurgists several times to reduce consumption of natural gas, and the transition from the wet process cement production at semi-arid and dry methods of reducing costs of fuel and energy resources to 25%. Energy conservation can not be "selective", it is necessary to cover different areas of the company. To do this most effective before all the activities carried out an energy audit to determine exactly all the "loopholes" and shortcomings. For example, since 2008, grundfos organize a free audit of pumping equipment the subject of energy and gives an estimate of the potential for improving energy efficiency in industrial enterprises. Also, keep in mind that such measures have taken not just from "crisis to crisis, and on a regular basis. "Move to space saving solution to the problem can only measure of a systemic nature. Such a system event is an energy management. It represents an ongoing management system power, which is aimed at reducing energy consumption enterprises, "- says Anna Kustova 5. Successively reducing the power consumption of its products, the company is not just learning to "survive" in difficult conditions and becoming more competitive. Those companies who still do not pay attention to this problem will become "hostages" of non-financial and managerial crisis, out of which to time will be harder. 1 2 3 4 5
The first things usually start picking pipe water – their price. That is, the value of the material, of which the water supply pipe, installation of additional equipment and materials. All together it will be constitute the water system. What materials are made of water supply pipe? Steel pipes of water supply. Produced is usually of two types: non-galvanized and galvanized (black). Galvanized pipes are mainly for the installation of potable water pipes and hot water.
Galvanized pipes, in contrast to the black coated with zinc, which prevents them from corrosion in an aqueous medium. Industry produces non-galvanized and galvanized pipes random length (non-uniform in length) from 4 to 12 m and a cut length (all pipes of this party a certain length) from 4 to 8 m with an allowance for each cut to 5 mm and a maximum deviation over the whole length + 10 mm. K steel pipes supply the following requirements. Pipe surface must be flat and smooth, with no sag and crack. A small amount of oxide layers, minor dents and risks. In the suture zone may be a gently sloping thickening of the height not exceeding 0.5 mm.
On the surface of galvanized pipes should not be not covered with zinc sites, bubble zinc coating; allowed a small surface roughness, and the influx of zinc. Cast-iron pipes of water supply. Used for outdoor water pipe systems, pressure gravity sewer systems and inland waterways. Advantage – increased durability compared to steel and corrosion resistance.
The name of the inventor of the brick will remain in history as no more and the names of inventors of all the usual, simple but fundamental things. Anyway, the man opened the properties of clay, this ancient building material. The oldest samples of baked clay were found in what is now Slovakia, and date back to the Paleolithic. The age of these samples – about 25 thousand years. Today the pottery is called a wide range of products, in baked clay.
Basic and most important of these products is a brick. For the construction of burnt brick was used from ancient times. This structure of Egypt and Mesopotamia, III-II millennium bc, and the architecture of Mesopotamia and Ancient Rome. Over time, instead of mud-brick was used more practical ceramic. According to Herodotus, in the vi century bc buildings of Babylon were richly and beautifully decorated with ceramic brick. Tiered Babylonian Temples got off with blue glazed brick.
Thanks to the brick began to develop complex architectural shapes: arches, vaults, etc Complicating the ornamentation and expressiveness of the brickwork. Sophisticated enough to remember and unique forms of Gothic architectural monuments of 12 century, producing a strong impression so far. In ancient Greece, as well as in the Byzantine brick called plinfy, and he had the dimensions 30 x 60 x 3.9 cm in 10 th century through the Byzantine brick appeared in ancient Russia. One of the first Russian brick buildings is considered to be Desiatynna Church (Kiev). Bricks for the building of temples are made at monasteries. Year 1475 marked the emergence of the first Russian brickworks. Dimensions plinfy could vary depending on need. In the 15 century. in Russia began to apply a "brick by Aristotle, which dimensions have looked more like modern. Standards of modern brick determined in the late 20's 20. and were 250 x 120 x 65 mm (so-called single). Brick industry has begun to develop since the mid 19 century, and today we have around 15 thousand combinations of shapes, colors and textures. Due to the development production of bricks, architecture can be an outstanding and unique appearance. Brick – a popular and practical material is present, it can be a different kind, full-and hollow, and perhaps artificial stone. Hyperpressed brick Litos – this is an artificial stone are in high demand due to their properties. This wonderful tile, and beautiful structural material. According to dictionary definition, bricks – clay brick. " However, modern brick has gone much further than this simple definition. Source: History of bricks